An interview with experts: Are backyard mosquito sprays safe and effective?

Person spraying pesticides in air
August 2, 2023

We get a lot of questions and concerns about backyard mosquito sprays. We interviewed two experts to learn more about the risks.

Each year, more yards are being sprayed for mosquitos. Did you know you could be poisoning your yard but mosquito populations are not being reduced?

Before deciding to spray your yard, know the facts. Spraying can harm you, your kids, pets and your neighbors. The chemicals can also harm birds and insects that help eat mosquitos and pollinate your yard.

To learn more about the problems with mosquito spraying, we interviewed Deborah Landau, an entomologist and conservation scientist at The Nature Conservancy, and Mary Travaglini, a certified organic land care professional and organic landscape manager at the Montgomery County, MD Department of Environmental Protection. These experts agree: Mosquito treatments, including the alleged “all natural” variety can harm you and your environment, while not actually reducing mosquito populations.

Person spraying pesticides in air

How effective are mosquito sprays?

MT: Published and peer-reviewed research by Professor David Pimentel shows that only 0.1% of the pesticides on average reached the target pests. [Pimentel, Cornell University 1995]. When Pimentel looked specifically at flying insects in the study, like mosquitos, the average was less than 0.0001%, or only one in a million. This is because the droplet size of a pesticide must be small and must float in the air.  The droplet size of a mosquito spray must be so small that the chemicals must float in the air, but they also easily drift out of the target area, killing other insects or mingling into the air we breathe.

DL: Sprays can only kill mosquitos that are in your yard at the time of spraying. Mosquitos typically fly 1-3 miles, so they can quickly re-populate your yard. A commercial mosquito treatment will be more likely to kill butterflies, bees and ladybugs in your yard at the time of application than the mosquitoes you’re trying to get rid of. Mosquitos are most active at dawn and dusk, but mosquito spray companies often come during the day when most pollinators are active.  If the treatments target standing water, beneficial insects that eat mosquitos, like dragonfly larvae, will also be killed. If the spray is focused on wet areas, such as piles of wet leaves, chances are they’re killing far more fireflies than mosquitos. Sadly, birds will often pick up insects killed by insecticides, and eat them or feed them to their young.

Dead bee in a flower

What am I getting for my 300 dollars’ worth of a pesticide spray?

MT: If we turn the .0001% effectiveness into dollars and cents, a millionth of $300 dollars’ worth of spraying is .0003, which is not even a third of a penny. In fact, we’d have to spend $10,000 before we even got once cent worth of value! Spend your time and money cleaning gutters, removing standing water, and getting together with the neighbors to do this throughout the neighborhood.

DL: Over time, mosquitos become resistant to pyrethroids (the active ingredients most mosquito treatments) through gene mutation in mosquito populations. Mutations in just this one single gene are enough to make mosquitos in one area resistant to the pesticides very quickly. Companies that spray on a regular schedule will make your mosquito population become resistant even faster. So essentially, you’ll be left with a yard and neighborhood full of super skeeters.

Mosquito staying dry under a wet leaf

Is there anything I can do to control mosquitos in my yard besides spraying?

DL: If you want more bang for your buck, purchase BTI mosquito dunks; they’re cheap, effective, and easy to use (you just place them in areas that hold water). And these are a bacteria that will only kill mosquito larvae. You should always remove standing water from your yard, including under flowerpots, inside wheelbarrows, and pretty much on anything plastic. Don’t forget to clean out your gutters even in summer (you’ll be rewarded with a dry basement in addition to fewer mosquitos)!

MT: There’s a reason why Disneyland, in a part of Florida with lots of mosquitos doesn’t use pesticides to control mosquitos. They take an approach that neighborhoods, HOAs, and businesses can all use right here—they ensure water doesn’t stay standing long enough for a mosquito to lay its egg and hatch into an adult—which is about 7 days. The BTI dunks are great solutions–in fact one of the best ways to treat mosquitoes is to give them a chance to breed in a bucket filled with straw and water and a BTI dunk. The females are attracted to the smell of the wet straw and water and lay their eggs in there, but the BTI dunk then kills the larvae. It’s like a trap, and will help the whole neighborhood reduce mosquito populations!

Cleaning gutters reduces mosquitos

I still hear about West Nile virus? Is this a concern?

MT: The CDC reported 6 cases of West Nile in Maryland in 2019, and no deaths. In 2018, there were 245 cases of all types of mosquito borne illnesses in Maryland, although it cannot be attributed to whether those were carried in the bodies of visitors or spread by mosquitos in the State. I looked up estimated cancer diagnoses for the first half of 2020, and we’re already at nearly 35,000 cancer cases. I’ll choose long sleeves and clearing standing water instead of spraying chemicals that won’t actually be effective but are a risk to my health.

DL: Prevent mosquito bites by wearing long sleeves and using non-toxic repellents that use oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE). Data shows OLE-based repellants are just as effective as the synthetic DEET formulations. DEET can be toxic at high levels and can damage synthetic clothing. A fan on your deck can be surprisingly effective – mosquitos are weak fliers, and the breeze from a fan will not only cool you off but will keep them away from the area.

What about the “all natural” alternatives that a company has told me about?

MT: Companies might describe that the chemicals used are derived from chrysanthemum flowers, but they are not from plant extracts. Commercial pyrethroids are synthetically produced to mimic the same properties of the pyrethrins in chrysanthemum flowers. Both chemicals paralyze the nervous system of many insects, but synthetic pyrethroids and the undisclosed chemicals they are mixed with are designed to be more lethal. Pyrethroids are neuropoisons in humans, and can cause rashes, respiratory distress, allergic reactions, headache, nausea, convulsions, and more. The additives can cause a host of other reactions. Pyrethroids are also very toxic to fish and other aquatic life, and spread easily on the wind to neighboring properties and into streams. The chemicals can persist on surfaces for days, further killing insects that come into contact.

MT: I looked up the data from the national poison control centers – over 27,000 calls were placed to poison control in 2018 for pyrethrins and pyrethroids, accounting for over 33% of the pesticide calls to poison control alone! Imagine how many more exposures are unknown.

Child sitting in the grass

Here’s another tip: If you’re looking for a way to reduce the entire population, consider these simple devices called OviTraps—used by the military around the world effectively to reduce mosquito populations. Don’t forget to keep removing standing water from your yard all summer long and remind your neighbors to do the same. Your neighbors, pets, birds, pollinators, fireflies and skin will thank you!


49 comments on "An interview with experts: Are backyard mosquito sprays safe and effective?"

  1. Scott Gordon says:

    In Montgomery County a major pest mosquito is the Asian tiger mosquito, an aggressive day biting invasive species. This species often remains in the immediate environment, flying only a few hundred yards, especially when the location provides all of its essential living requirements: a bloodmeal source for reproduction, sugar/nectar for energy, adequate resting sites and available egg laying sites. I agree that there are alternatives to backyard pesticide spraying such as using environmentally friendly alternatives like Bti, but I would not recommend ovitraps for general use. While they are frequently used by scientists as a mosquito surveillance and research tool, they can become a problem if not properly maintained. Ovitraps are small soup-size cans, painted black, partially filled with water and provided with a substrate (wooden paddle or paper lining) on which mosquitoes will lay their eggs. Ovitraps must be inspected and maintained on a weekly basis which includes replacing the egg substrate, dumping out the water and replacing it with new water). Failure to do this maintenance can result the ovitrap becoming a mosquito producer. Any eggs laid on the substrate will hatch when it rains and the new breeding site will attract more tiger mosquitoes. Since ovitraps are often put out in large numbers, a portion often go missing, either through the action of animals or just failure to relocate a trap. Another drawback to ovitraps is that they do not trap and kill the egg laying female mosquito. Since container breeding mosquitoes often practice “skip oviposition” where they lay only a portion of their eggs in any one container, by not trapping the egg laying female the ovitrap at best collects only a small portion of her eggs and she can move on to other sites. A better alternative is the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) which traps the egg laying female on a sheet of sticky paper inside the trap before she can lay her eggs thereby preventing both the next generation of eggs from hatching and removing egg laying females from the population. These traps require no power, use no toxic chemicals, are relatively inexpensive and require very little maintenance. Several neighborhoods in Montgomery County are encouraging residents to join in large scale tiger mosquito control programs using GAT traps. A paper published in Nature in 2018 by Brian Johnson and others “Neighbors help neighbors control urban mosquitoes” describes the results of first 2 years of a control program using GATs in University Park, MD. The paper is open access and available at

  2. Richard Kramer says:

    Keep in mind that the Ovitraps are effective for some aedes species as Scott mentions. The problem is with other genera such as culex that have a greater flight range.

    Disney isn’t a good model for residential mosquito management. They control 10s of thousands of acres so they can larvacide and use other methods to prevent larval development – manage the breeding sites ( water) and you control mosquitoes. You can not control your neighbors yards and their breeding sites.

    1. KD McLynn says:

      Culex are reported to travel farther, so maybe having traps in one’s own yard would not have as much impact as it would on Aedes if only measuring the effect in this single yard. However, that doesn’t mean that widespread use would not be effective.
      A different species but this study found that Culex are found to be attracted to ovi-traps, and found that infusion of grass or hay was more attractive as a bait than skatole/3-methylindole.

  3. JIM ORISCAK oriscak says:

    ENJOYED READING THIS.. I was not aware of the harm to other insects / birds / humans.. The sellers of the spray product tell you that it is 95 -98 % effective and that there are no harmful effects to humans.. If this is an obvious lie how can they get permits to do it.???

  4. Angelica freund says:

    Well of course… they tell you what they need to tell you to get business. Many people have bought into these franchises, up to $20,000 , and what happens to that investment if people realize that the spray is toxic. Just look up on MSDS site or Material safety data sheet. Look up the chemicals Pyrethins and pyrethroids. This is actual scientific data and it’s actually horrifying that the EPA allows this to be sprayed in neighborhoods by inexperienced kids on school break. There will always be someone who twists the truth.
    But these stats dont lie. These are neuro poisons and I have personally experienced the headaches the respiratory distress and more. Causing me to have to leave my home for hours. It’s even more crazy that you can be outside enjoying a BBQ and next thing you know some kid shows up with a loud backpack blower and huge clouds of chemicals are filling the environment. And this is legal. Not even a warning. And epa does not look out for the little guys best interest. Dont believe that for one minute. I do like the article and the good tips about neighbors working together to control with the traps. Maybe not perfect but it sure beats poisoning the environment and those who make their home here.

  5. Ryan says:

    Mosquito treatments can kill beneficials the same way that cars can kill people. They can, but they shouldn’t. That’s why you need a license to operate commercially. You should know what you’re doing. When bees, for example, are out of their hive in a two to five mile radius, they are working–pollinating. They do not hang out with ticks or adult resting mosquitoes in brush piles and underneath decks and sheds and stone walls. It is all about correctly targeting, and avoiding spraying where the bees do go–blossoms of any kind, whether a petunia flower or a Kousa Dogwood in June. It is absolutely possible to avoid drifting onto blossoms. They literally do it professionally. Used correctly, pesticides should kill the targeted pest. The pesticide application is not the problem. It is irresponsible and uncaring applicators/operators that present an issue. Choose a responsible company. Like with anything else.

    1. Jill says:

      Hi Ryan, my neighbours just had their property sprayed by a company that uses synthetic pyrethrin. It was very windy, I was working in my garden and felt the spray, looked up to see all the mist floating through the trees into my yard. The “licensed operator” also sprayed the trees and bushes on my property that border my neighbours yard, without even asking me. By the time I realized he was spraying my property, not theirs, it was too late. A lot of it is blooming right now, full of insects. I’m feeling devastated that all the work I’ve put into over the years to create a space that is friendly to pollinators and beneficial insects has been wiped out by this idiot. Is it really going to kill the beneficial insects? The company claims it lasts for at least 3 weeks, so is it going to keep killing insects all that time? I’ve been reading a lot about this but it seems like there is a lot of contradictory or biased info.

      1. Water the vegetation. Big time. Insecticide breaks down from sunlight itself, and high temps but there’s a mechanical process to remove the insecticide, pronto. Watering will remove the insecticide present as a dust, instantly. There, problem solved 🤪

        1. Traci says:

          100% incorrect. The pesticides are residual meaning they stay in the environment everywhere the mist of toxic poison is carried on the wind, ultimately killing every every insect in your yard – AND MINE – when the wind blows. This is a selfish completely irresponsible reply and obviously from someone who makes their living poisoning the environment.

  6. Hello says:

    These pyrethrums and pyrethroids are highly toxic to cats. Please do your research.

  7. I really liked your article . I think it was a great post! There is a lot of information in there to process. One thing that stood out for me: It’s important to know that pesticides can harm you, your kids, pets, and other people nearby who may be sensitive or young. Pesticides also kill insects such as bees which pollinate our food supply and help control bugs like mosquitoes.

  8. The Dave says:

    Your post is so well written that it leaves no room for imagination to manipulate your image.
    These are obviously terrible chemicals, especially if the immensely conservative and industry-at-all-costs EPA is giving warnings about their usage. I’ve gotten the SDS information right from the neighbor’s spray company. They sent it to me in a cheery fashion, as if they were proud. Herein lies one of the biggest issues: they WERE proud, because they had been sold a (b)ill of goods by the petro-chemical industry and it’s White Knight, the EPA. They were told that if they pay money to become licensed, and use these prescribed products, that there isn’t anything that can possibly go wrong. And they believe it.
    And why shouldn’t they? After all, why would the good people at the American Tobacco Institute allow cigarettes to be sold if they would give cancer to their customer base? Why would doctors hand out medicine that is highly addictive and detrimental to your health? Why would the FDA ban glyphosate if Monsato (Bayer) says it is perfectly safe? Why would the Army spray PFAS all over Michigan if it wasn’t safe to drink the water afterwards? It’s the same with the EPA, and petro-chemicals. And make no mistake, there are petrochemicals in these products. Don’t take my word for it, request the info and do your research. We are slaves to the petroleum industry in so many ways beyond our transportation industry, and there is simply too much money on the line to change.
    The apotheosis of the dollar. And I am not immune. I am just as much to blame as anyone else every time I don’t take action against the tide of ignorance that is overwhelming our world. Idiocracy is here. Nothing is sacred, certainly not life on our planet (yes my anti-democratic fellow, that includes human life).

    1. Marc says:

      Dave, superb, well thought out reply.

  9. Sylvia Darrow says:

    I use a Mosquito control company.
    I still see many bees, butterflies, and other beneficial insects. My birds and cat are still alive. I have not been bitten once by a mosquito! With the extremely
    Stringent Montgomery County laws,
    I challenge most of this misleading article!

    1. Joe says:

      Anytime someone claims preposterous things like “I have not been bitten once by a mosquito”… they are lying. Proof? The fact that even the companies that do these treatments will tell you they are not 100% effective and you will still have SOME mosquitos and likely still get bites, but that they should be at a much lower rate than before. This fictional commenter is probably someone who works for one of the companies that poisons people’s yards with products that don’t work. But hey, let’s take her anecdote over published, peer corroborated research. Right?

  10. Surain says:

    The blog post is very useful.
    The suggestions from the experts are very cool. They have almost covered all the points to control the mosquitos and In recent times mosquito nets windows are in trend that prevents mosquitos from entering your home or commercial space and also gives an aesthetic look to you house.

  11. Laura P Wilhelm says:

    I just walked my dog around the block in my neighborhood only to find myself walking (and then running) through clouds of smoke that burned my throat. Then, I saw the sign advertising for mosquito yard treatment and realized what was happening. I came straight home with my throat burning and coughed quite a bit. While I got away as quickly as possible, I was caught by surprise and inhaled quite a bit. I think it should be illegal, but apparently the EPA is allowing it !? Is there any recommendations to clear your throat and lungs after inhaling these toxins?

    1. Karen Rise says:

      Same here Laura! I walk my dog in the evening when it’s cooler outside and this often coincides with neighbors’ mosquito treatment. The pest control companies advise customers to stay indoors for at least 30 minutes after the chemicals are sprayed, but how are neighbors supposed to know to avoid the area? While they’re safe indoors, my dog and I are walking through a clouds of poison.

  12. I read your article about controlling mosquitos without using chemicals and I loved it. I especially liked the part where you mentioned BTI mosquito dunks which are cheap, effective, and easy to use (I just need them for my backyard).

  13. tree removal says:

    I found your post to be really interesting and informative. I especially enjoyed the detail you put into it!

  14. Jeanne says:

    We have a raised garden and two big pots with 2 to 3 feet tall rosemary plants. My kids to surprised me for an outdoor event had a backyard mosquito company come and sprayed.
    We have tried to raise all vegetables organic and herbs and I was unaware of this happening. Since October we have not ate any of the vegetables or herbs for fear of what was sprayed on them.
    Is it possible to save these rosemary plants and would Cutting back to restart growth be the answer?

    1. Mary Travaglini says:

      Jeanne, I don’t know much about rosemary, but if it can regrow from being cutback, then I would guess you are probably fine. I don’t believe the sprays are known to be absorbed into the tissues of plants, but also not sure much research has been done. Sorry you lost out on the fruits of your labor! FYI, let them know if they ever want to surprise someone again with an outdoor party, that setting up a bunch of fans and also providing some bug spray for people’s clothing is the best way to make the space mosquito-free!

  15. L T H says:

    Hi.. we had just moved to a new home and did not know about the drift from “organic” sprays or that anyone in the neighborhood would be spraying. I experienced a reaction from the spray when my neighbor had her yard sprayed by Mosquito Shield. I got hit with the spray (inhaled it) and my lips started burning, my tongue went numb and I felt slightly dizzy. This lasted for over an hour. I was able to ask the guy who was doing the spraying what he was spraying and did he have information I could read. He told me the spray was safe (cedar and garlic oil), but did not have any info on the full ingredients list. He gave me a number to call. When I contacted Mosquito Shield, the office had the owner call me back. The owner told me no one has ever had a bad reaction to the spray and I must be allergic to garlic. I am not allergic to garlic. He also told me he would email the list of ingredients in the mosquito control spray. I never received the list. I had to research this on my own. Thank you for this info on the dangers to people, pets and wildlife. Since moving in, I have landscaped to increase my pollinator gardens. I have also added edibles (fruit trees and bushes, vegetables and many herbs) and I do not want any of the sprays on our property. My neighbor continued the service for the rest of last summer but thankfully canceled it for this year, deciding to make changes to her deck area for protection from mosquitos.

  16. Bob K says:

    Hi, any insight on “Essentria”? It’s comprised of Rosemary, peppermint and geraneall. It’s supposed to be safe for humans and pets but I wonder about spiders (who fight on our side) and honey bees in particular. It’s one thing if it’s a deterrent and they go somewhere else but are they killed by this Essentria? I have read conflicting reports. Thanks!

    1. Mary Travaglini says:

      Hi Bob, I looked this up, and it seems correct that it can also kill other insects like bees and arachnids like spiders. You might want to check out our most recent blog about creating a mosquito population trap to reduce them in greater numbers!

  17. richard kramer says:

    Contact with the wet spray can kill other arthropods.

  18. BusyLizzieBee says:

    If we don’t protect the insects that play a pivotal role in the cycle of life, there is hardly any point in protecting ourselves. It is estimated that 75% of the species grown for human consumption are pollinated by the insect pollination. We have been in a pollinator crisis for a while now. Declines in pollinators have been recorded in the USA, where more than 60% of domesticated honeybee colonies have died. The onslaught continues. It is simple, really. No pollinators, no food.

  19. Chat says:

    I use a mosquito spraying company’s all-natural essential oil solution. I have to have more frequent treatments ( 2 weeks vs. 3 weeks). For the last two years, have been mosquito free and have not seen any reduction in bees/butterflies/ants….

  20. Braden Bills says:

    I’ve been having issues with mosquitos in my back yard. It makes sense that I would want to try the right kind of sprays. I’ll be sure to work with a professional to ensure that I handle things properly.

  21. Cathy Desmarais says:

    We just had our yard sprayed for mosquitoes… I had clothes drying on the line…
    If I knew the company was coming today, I wouldn’t have hung my sheets out.


    1. richard kramer, phd bce says:

      The company never should have made that application. Request that they replace your sheets and other items hanging on the line. It will definitely teach them a lesson with regard to a careless application.

      Alternatively you can wash items in hot soapy water and that should remove most of the product. Products are applied at low concentrations so can possibly be washed out.

      If they used a natural product containing peppermint oil, geraniol , etc. the odor may linger.

      The option you select depends on you comfort level.

  22. If insecticides/pesticides are banned in Montgomery County what allows Mosquito Joe to opertate in MoCo?

    1. Richard Kramer says:

      The ban applies to lawn care products applied to the lawn. It does not apply to mosquito control products and other products not specifically targeting the yard.

  23. zidane says:

    very clear and good article easy to understand. Thank you

  24. Madison says:

    Make sure your house or space is protected from pests! General Pest Control is the best regarding this. bed bugs

  25. Debby says:

    Mosquito Joe is now advertising a “natural or botanical” spray for mosquito control that contains oils of rosemary, lemongrass, peppermint and garlic (among other unspecified ingredients). Will this kind of spray harm pollinators and other beneficial insects?

    1. Mary Travaglini says:


      It’s less likely that these will have a harmful effect on pollinators and other beneficials, but I don’t know the level of research that is done on direct contact with insects that could be affected by these sprays. Of course, start by removing all possible standing water, even tiny amounts, cleaning gutters, getting rid of corrugated plastic pipes from downspouts, etc, use fans when sitting on a porch to deter mosquitoes, etc, and see if that can help. But if you must spray, I would say this sounds like a much more advisable path to take, for the health of your family, pets, and wildlife!

  26. al-jazirah says:

    These pyrethrums and pyrethroids are highly toxic to cats. Please do your research.

  27. I use a mosquito spraying company’s all-natural essential oil solution. I have to have more frequent treatments ( 2 weeks vs. 3 weeks). For the last two years, have been mosquito free and have not seen any reduction in bees/butterflies/ants….

    1. Lori says:

      Can you tell me what company that is?

  28. Dennis M says:

    Very informative articel.

  29. qinayaPrint says:

    I appreciate the efforts you people put in to share blogs on such kind of topics, it was indeed helpful. Keep Posting!

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